Pattern of fat consumption that may reduce CHD events

January 01, 0001

Pattern of fat consumption that may reduce CHD events

Reduced saturated fat (SFA) consumption is recommended to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD), but there is an absence of strong supporting evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of clinical CHD events and few guidelines focus on any specific replacement nutrient. Additionally, some public health groups recommend lowering or limiting polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) consumption, a major potential replacement for SFA. The researchers from the US systematically investigated and quantified the effects of increased PUFA consumption, as a replacement for SFA, on CHD endpoints in RCTs. RCTs were identified by systematic searches of multiple online databases through June 2009, grey literature sources, hand-searching related articles and citations, and direct contacts with experts to identify potentially unpublished trials. From 346 identified abstracts, eight trials met inclusion criteria, totaling 13,614 participants with 1,042 CHD events.

Average weighted PUFA consumption was 14.9% energy in intervention groups versus 5.0% energy in controls. The overall pooled risk reduction was 19% (RR = 0.81, significant), corresponding to 10% reduced CHD risk (RR = 0.90) for each 5% energy of increased PUFA. Meta-regression identified study duration as an independent determinant of risk reduction, with studies of longer duration showing greater benefits.

The authors concluded: "These findings provide evidence that consuming PUFA in place of SFA reduces CHD events in RCTs. This suggests that rather than trying to lower PUFA consumption, a shift toward greater population PUFA consumption in place of SFA would significantly reduce rates of CHD."

A fine-tuning of nutritional advice.

For the full abstract, click here.

PLoS Med 7(3):e1000252, 23 March 2010
© 2010 Mozaffarian et al
Effects on Coronary Heart Disease of Increasing Polyunsaturated Fat in Place of Saturated Fat: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Mozaffarian D, Micha R and Wallace S. Correspondence to D Mozaffarian: [email protected]

Category: K. Circulatory, T. Endocrine/Metabolic/Nutritional. Keywords: coronary artery disease, polyunsaturated fat, saturated fat, systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, journal watch.
Synopsis edited by Dr Stephen Wilkinson, Melbourne, Australia. Posted on Global Family Doctor 21 May 2010

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